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What is pressure Ulcers ?
Pressure Ulcers, which are also called bedsores, decubitus ulcers or pressure sores, are injuries to the skin and underlying tissue. They are caused by any kind of prolonged pressure or friction on a particular area of the body,resulting in redness, swelling, ulceration and even deep subcutaneous tissue, muscle and bone .
Causes of pressure ulcers
—Aging causes some physiological changes, which makes the protective function of the skin worse and prone to skin damage.
—Increased local tissue temperature increases cellular metabolic rate and reduces tolerance to hypoxia.
—Long-term malnutrition or imbalance, lack of protein and vitamins in the blood, insufficient hemoglobin, and anemia may affect blood circulation and wound repair
—Nicotine in smoke will constrict local peripheral blood vessels, reduce vascular circulation and increase the chance of ulcers
—Limb edema: Limb edema, limb spasm, local infection, or other diseases such as diabetes, drug use, age, skin elasticity, mental state, etc., all have direct or indirect effects on whether bedsores occur
Pressure ulcers occur when there is ongoing compression of the soft tissue between bony parts of the body and an external surface. They usually occur on the skin that overlies the heels, the back of the head and the tail bone. They can also occur on the ears, elbows, spine and shoulder blades.
The common factors which can cause the pressure ulcers are as follows：
—When the external pressure is greater than blood pressure ,the local circulation will be hindered,which makes the cells in a state of hypoxia
Increasing Shear Force
—The shear force will severely pull the subcutaneous tissue and blood vessels, and the blood vessels will be pulled, distorted or even broken, resulting in blocked blood supply.
Increasing Frictional Force
—Frictional Force increases the chance of ulceration of the epidermis, causing the protective skin to be forcibly removed
—Excessive local skin humidity, such as incontinence and profuse sweating, can easily increase local shear force and cause bedsores
Changes of Perception
—People will move bodies when they feel uncomfortable .But for patients with paresthesia ,they hardly can feel it even if the skin has ulcerated